Malcolm X (1925–1965) was an American Muslim minister and civil rights activist. He was a spokesperson for the Nation of Islam until renouncing the organization in 1964. His most recognizable philosophy was that the Black community has the right to protect themselves and their freedoms by any means necessary, which was held in contrast to the Civil Rights Movement’s dominant theory of nonviolent resistance.
This groundbreaking and highly acclaimed work examines the two most influential African-American leaders of this century. While Martin Luther King, Jr., saw America as essentially a dream . . . as yet unfulfilled, Malcolm X viewed America as a realized nightmare.
To most Americans, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. represent contrasting ideals: self-defense vs. nonviolence, black power vs. civil rights, the sword vs. the shield. The struggle for black freedom is wrought with the same contrasts.