Epictetus (50–135 CE) was a Greek Stoic philosopher who believed that philosophy was a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. He taught that all external events are beyond one’s control, and thus one should accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. In addition, Epictetus believed in individual responsibility for one’s actions through rigorous self-discipline.
The stress on endurance, self-restraint, and power of the will to withstand calamity can often seem coldhearted. It is Epictetus, a lame former slave exiled by Emperor Domitian, who offers by far the most precise and humane version of Stoic ideals.
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